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Display: 20

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    • 1 Chapter 1 Introduction – Nature of the Problem It is well known that students go through what is commonly referred to as “the fourth grade slump.” Research presented by Hall, Sabey, & McClellan (2005) and Fang (2008) has shown that this “slump”...
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    • 10 and apply comprehension strategies on their own during reading, therefore making the text more meaningful. Instruction in reading expository text must be planned and well thought out to promote student thought throughout the reading to result in...
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    • 11 Limited early exposure is a factor that can easily be remedied by all teachers. Children need to experience expository texts through seeing, hearing, reading, and writing, prior to when they are expected to comprehend the material within the...
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    • 12 (2007) attempted to help second grade students assimilate the new information they learned by utilizing Talking Drawings. In this study, students were asked to draw a picture of the topic prior to the lesson. Many of the drawings depicted...
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    • 13 will help students become more successful in their vocabulary usage. Therefore, tier two words should make up a majority of the vocabulary instruction. Tier three words are specific, technical terms that are important in understanding the topic...
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    • 14 Another suggestion to activate interest and increase students’ vocabulary about a specific topic is through the use of informational alphabet books (Yopp & Yopp, 2000). Prior to studying a specific topic, the teacher will have students...
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    • 15 get an idea about the topic. The students, using the pictures as guides, make predictions about the text and its contents. Just as picture walks are associated with narrative text, text feature walks should be associated with expository text...
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    • 16 Text structure. Expository text is organized into different structures. These structures include sequence, compare and contrast, description, cause and effect, and problem and solution (Akhondi, Malayeri, & Samad, 2011; Moss, 2004). Each...
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    • 17 combinations which might help the students understand the concepts the teacher wishes to communicate (Watson, 2005). Purposeful Kinesthetics in Non-Math Disciplines Though not widely applied in the field of mathematics, purposeful, related...
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    • 17 of structure and organize it, they are better equipped to comprehend the information presented in the text (Moss, 2004) When presenting students with text passages, the passages should be selected with great care. The text needs to be well...
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    • 18 covered three types of text structure list, main idea, and order. Students were taught how to identify each type of passage based upon text structure and then apply specific strategies for each type of structure. The study concluded that...
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    • 19 Retelling. Unlike summarizing, a retell is a recall of everything that was remembered from the reading. In a retelling the student is not concerned with the main idea and supporting details, but is instead concerned with the content as a whole....
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    • 19 stepping, chanting and clapping as they read. After the kinesthetic exercise, students wrote a small paragraph that showed their comprehension of the reading (Peebles, 2007). Ms. Peebles is also an advocate for reader’s theater, which encourages...
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    • 2 knowledge. Students are explicitly taught in the younger grades how to identify characters, setting, and plot. Students entering fourth grade are provided with textbooks in the areas of Social Studies and Science. They are asked to read the...
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    • 20 Due to the complex nature of summaries, some students may require a paragraph frame. The paragraph frame consists of three to four sentences containing blanks for students to fill in with their newly acquired information. Students are initially...
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    • 20 which is first, Prewrite; second, Write; third, Revise; fourth, Edit; and finally, Publish. As paradigms shifted, “The writing process was at the heart of the student-centered composition class, where the product was de-emphasized, along with a...
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    • 21 The Four-Part Lesson Cycle created by Montelongo et al. (2010) addressed vocabulary, text structure, modified sentence completion, and rewriting the text. This four-step cycle spanned a five-week period and showed a significant amount...
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    • 22 disabilities in recent years. These strategies, which have been shown to help students, should be implemented into classrooms today to help students better comprehend expository text. Students should be benefiting from the research-based...
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    • 23 Chapter 3 Methodology The purpose of this action research study is to examine the effects of teaching expository text to primary grade students with developmental delays. Four different instructional strategies were used to teach all of the...
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    • 24 The study took place during the participants regularly scheduled school day, within their self-contained classroom setting. Study participants received research-based teaching practices designed by their special education teacher and implemented...

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