The I-Text Distance Learning System 4
via thumb drive. An entire course can be distributed in one, self-contained document. Below is a list of
components that can be incorporated into an I-Text:
1. Communication Console – The main drawback of...
The I-Text Distance Learning System 6
The I-Text was developed using Acrobat 9, Flash CS3, Flex 3.0, PHP and MySQL. The
individual consoles were written in Actionscript 3.0 and compiled using Flash CS3. The consoles
communicate with a web server...
The I-Text Distance Learning System 8
contact was synchronous (though they used different words). Further study is necessary to determine in
what ways communication was better with the I-Text system.
The differences in opinion with regard to...
EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION 9
communication. At the time, they found CMC to be a more depersonalized form of
communication (Garton & Wellman, 1993). Thus, in certain circumstances where less social
information is required, and task-orientation is...
The Human Element 41
A managerial approach to studying cultures comes from the work of Laurent (1983) and Victor (1992). Laurent identified four dimensions or parameters, as he refers to them: perception of organizations as political systems,...
Modern digital devices have a venerable history dating back to 1936. Early
digital devices were basically electrical logic machines and complex number
calculators. The first special-purpose electronic digital computer appeared in 1939
and the first...
System Level: Examples:
Application Software Word Processing Software
Operating System Windows, MacOS
Hardware System (BIOS) Computers, Palm Devices
Table 3-1 Three Levels of Digital Devices
Digital devices operate on three levels: the hardware,...
geography and United States history, reading and spelling. The required work in these studies is as follows
Arithmetic. As treated in Southworth's Essentials of Arithmetic, Book II., Werner's Arithmetic, Book III., or an...
Year Interface Type Developer(s) Explanation
Serial bus Various Original bus for computer systems
1974 Mouse, Network Xerox Developed mouse, network, GUI, windows
1986 Parallel bus Inmos UK First parallel port processing
1986 SCSI bus Various Small...
Cedar City Culinary Water usage for 1960 and 24 y e a r s l a t e r , 1984
1960 Populatim Water Storage LGallonsl Water Connections Water Delivered LGallonsl Average Gal. per day per person LOW Day Usaqe Date (gall&sl High Day Usage Date (gallons)...
Serial buses send bits in sequence, one
right after another in “series” or, in other
words, in “serial” fashion (see Figure 3.5).
Serial buses were among the earliest types
used in computer systems. Many early
Using these basic data as your baseline, you could then test different areas of the
conversion process to determine where improvements could be made, focusing on
the touch points. In the example above, the first place to...
DIGITAL SOFTWARE AND PERIPHERALS
Digital devices have changed dramatically since the inception of the personal
computer in the 1970s, as have all of their peripheral supporting devices have also
improved—displays, printers, scanners, sound...
Most digital hardware systems require an operating system. Application
software talks to the operating system, which in turn talks to the hardware (see
Table 1-1). Most modern operating systems use graphical user interfaces or GUI
Figure 3.10 Displays for Digital Devices
DigiTrends Display Developments
Year Monitor Type Developer(s) Explanation
1976 CPU Encased Apple First B&W monitors encased in the CPU box
1977 Detached Apple First non-CPU encased monitor for Apple II
U.S. Embassy 47
seems to stand alone in the text itself. There are no other metaphors on the page that support
this metaphor in any way.
I haven’t had much luck with any other metaphors that would allow me to really analyze
the character of the...
Figure 3.11 Laser Printer
Printers are an important peripheral device on larger digital systems like
personal computers. They are an increasingly popular accessory for PDAs and cells
phones, particularly those that offer fax capabilities.
DigiTrends Printer Developments
Year Printer Type Developer(s) Explanation 1977
Laser Printer Xerox First laser printers cost $350,000
1978 MX-80 dot matrix Epson First dot matrix printer for PCs
1984 HP LaserJet Hewlett-Packard First HP LaserJet...
DigiTrends Modem Developments
Year Modem Speed Developer(s) Model Name/Explanation
1979 300 baud (bps) Hayes Micro Modem; Used acoustic couplers
1984 1200 baud (bps) Hayes Used add-on card technology
1987 9600 K bps U.S. Robotics HST model greatly...
Both hardware and application software need an operating system to do their
work. There have been dramatic changes to operating systems, roughly
corresponding to the increased power of processors and the increasing RAM
demands of programs....