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    • 1 Chapter 1 Introduction Recently there has been strong scientific evidence pointing to a potential link between the mind and the body, suggesting improved cognitive results when movement is added to the learning process (Jensen, 2005). However,...
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    • 11 Limited early exposure is a factor that can easily be remedied by all teachers. Children need to experience expository texts through seeing, hearing, reading, and writing, prior to when they are expected to comprehend the material within the...
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    • 16 Text structure. Expository text is organized into different structures. These structures include sequence, compare and contrast, description, cause and effect, and problem and solution (Akhondi, Malayeri, & Samad, 2011; Moss, 2004). Each...
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    • 18 covered three types of text structure list, main idea, and order. Students were taught how to identify each type of passage based upon text structure and then apply specific strategies for each type of structure. The study concluded that...
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    • 18 in reading books and school texts. In order to be more effective and utilize repetition for understanding, the researcher incorporated the program into the classroom daily. The researcher also created weekly pretests that were given on Mondays...
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    • 18 to consider multiple intelligences, unique goals of this learner, specific concerns about this learner, content demands, and how the students are going to communicate with the teacher they have mastered the concept (Ellis, Lieberman & LeRoux,...
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    • 20 Due to the complex nature of summaries, some students may require a paragraph frame. The paragraph frame consists of three to four sentences containing blanks for students to fill in with their newly acquired information. Students are initially...
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    • 21 The Four-Part Lesson Cycle created by Montelongo et al. (2010) addressed vocabulary, text structure, modified sentence completion, and rewriting the text. This four-step cycle spanned a five-week period and showed a significant amount...
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    • 23 Chapter 3 Methodology The purpose of this action research study is to examine the effects of teaching expository text to primary grade students with developmental delays. Four different instructional strategies were used to teach all of the...
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    • 25 second grade level science and social studies core curriculums. The timeline of steps required to complete the study were as follows: 1. Administration of the pre-assessments on expository text comprehension, two days. 2. Whole class lessons...
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    • 27 was also asked to verbalize why they identified the text as either narrative or expository. Although this instruction lasted only two class sessions, the introduction of texts as either expository or narrative prepared the students for the study...
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    • 28 approach that is a combination of the other three instructional strategies, vocabulary, text features, and text structure. The instructors were each given an outline of instruction to follow (see Appendix D), a graphic organizer geared toward...
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    • 29 After an overview of the lesson outline, the instructors were given further directions depended upon their assigned instructional group. The researcher explained how to teach each method with the provided graphic organizers and expository...
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    • 31 show a negative attitude, however, there was an equal amount of neutral response to the highest percent of negative response: “Neither Agree nor Disagree” at 34% and “Disagree at 35%. Item four results show an overwhelming positive response with...
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    • 33 Multiple methods group. Because of the incorporating of vocabulary, text features, and text structure, this instructional strategy was a little more complex. To not overwhelm the participants with three separate graphic organizers, the...
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    • 34 environment,” “educational model” and “academic performance” were all fairly equally represented; while “convenience” and “other” were seldom selected or not at all, respectively. However, in regard to the most important reason (Figure 8),...
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    • 36 “educational model” surpassed all other selections. Answers left blank or containing multiple selections on item five were categorized as no answer. Figure 9. Gateway Preparatory Academy teacher response to item 4: Factors that influenced...
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    • 37 A second evaluation instrument used in this study was a retell rubric. This rubric was designed to rate the oral retellings of each participant (see Appendix B). The retellings were used to measure the participants’ ability to analyze,...
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    • 37 structure and in thought. Writing was evaluated by the emergence of the sentence patterns more consistently used by student writers as seen in multiple essays; also, students’ feelings of confidence were taken into account by verbal feedback....

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