Applied Biosystems (AB 2006, Foster City, CA) and the PowerPlex 16 produced by Promega Corporation (Promega 2008, Madison, WI.). The kit used in this study was the Promega PowerPlex16 multiplex kit, which detects sixteen STRs while the Applied...
Evaluation of Fit section (Hoyle, 1995). SEM consists of several steps including model
specification, estimation, evaluation of model fit, model modification and interpretation
In the specification step, a...
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(1996) conducted a study to determine if a text was too easy, appropriate, or too difficult for the 38 participants involved. Their criterion was based on percentages of scores: under 40% meant that the text was too difficult; 40% to 60% meant...
number of glass microscope slides were touched by a donor and held for 3-5 seconds. This was to ensure that a solid print was placed on each slide and therefore a sufficient source for the DNA to be collected. The experiment had two trials, with...
achievement in reading is higher at the end of the school year than it was at the beginning of the
year (Al Otaiba, Kosanovich-Grek, Torgesen, Hassler, & Wahl, 2005). One study shows that,
when using ability grouping for reading instruction,...
results; not all participants’ knowledge could cover all possible items. Therefore, the results were not completely valid and reliable. Brown suggested that a cloze test should be constructed to fit a particular group of...
material, oral and silent reading, monitoring, and wide and repeated reading (Reutzel & Cooter,
2007). Fluency is often measured by the number of words read per minute. There are many
assessments to measure fluency, but one of the best known is...
McCabe, Margolis, & Barenbaum (2001) conducted a study that compared the Woodcock - Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery-Revised (WJ-R) and the QRI-II tests. The researchers discussed the importance of providing students with materials that were...
measured as the ability to understand narrative and expository text,
shown in a national sample of students (Campbell, Voelkl, & Donahue,
1997). At all three ages studied (9,13, and 17 years), the more highly
engaged readers showed higher...
negative, that child’s awareness of contingencies affecting their own behavior is increased
(Appolloni, Cooke & Strain, 1976).
In some instances, student removal from the classroom and placement in a less
stimulating environment such as a...
outdoor activity engages students, where nature is the manipulative, resulting in reviewing
concepts like ratios, proportions, percents, measurements and random sampling while addressing
the bodily/kinesthetic and naturalist...
went to pre-kindergarten programs. In recent years, some politicians held the belief that pre-kindergarten
programs would eventually impact scores recorded for the No Child Left Behind
Act. This notion brought forth even more funding for...
Chapter 3 - Methodology
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of the use of Words Their Way as a
spelling program with Zaner-Bloser’s spelling basal Spelling Connections, in order to identify
which method of teaching spelling...
Disruptive behavior can be understood by analyzing relationships between the behavior
and its antecedents. Antecedents are any stimuli in the students’ environment that may have
caused the disruptive behavior. Researchers have demonstrated...
Variables for structural equation modeling can be either observed (measured
directly by the data) or latent. Latent variables are unobserved but are implied by the
relationships noted between multiple factors. The latent variables are stipulated...
effectiveness of the reading comprehension tests studied. The definition for comprehension that the researcher compiled was making meaning from and interacting with the text by using the processes of word recognition, reading fluency, and...
same time, citizens of industrialized nations, the United States chief among them, [were]
becoming alienated from the sources of food they eat” (Gow 2005). “To decrease the
threat of the obesity epidemic, children need to broaden the...
26 Chapter 2
Planning for Web Design
The following checklist can help you to evalu-ate
the quality and effectiveness of your own (or
any) web site.
1. Is there a notable consistency in the site? In
other words do all the pages appear to be...