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    • 1912, page 36

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    • 36 Mrs. Browning, Byron, Wordsworth, Shelley, Keats, Coleridge, Burns, Gray, Goldsmith ; essays of Lamb, De Quincy, Bacon, or Addison. Outside reading will be selected from the following: Gaskell, "Cranford';" Kingsley, "Hypatia ;" Jane Austin,...
    • Page 25

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    • STRAIGHT IS THE GATE 26 In Europe and subsequently in North America, polygamy has been seen as a barbarous and immoral lifestyle “since the earliest of times” (Austen, 2011). Because the belief that polygamy breeds immorality and abuse is so...
    • Page 105

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    • STRAIGHT IS THE GATE 106 Philipsen, G. (1992). Speaking culturally: Explorations in social communication. Albany, NY: State University of New York. Philipsen, G. (1997). A theory of speech codes. In G. Philipsen & T. Albrecht (Eds.), Developing...
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    • MUTED MOTHERHOOD 5 The same year Hirshman’s book came out, Caitlin Flanagan, a writer for both The Atlantic and The New Yorker, attempted to give society a stay-at-home mother’s perspective with her book To Hell with All That: Loving and...
    • Page 23

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    • No pirates no princesses 18 fertile ground for major marketing companies who want to set life long buying decisions in stone before the age of reasoning dawns. These crucial few years determine habits and the marketers want their brand to become...
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    • 1 AN ANALYSIS OF AUTOMATIVE ESSAY SCORING PROGRAMS AND THEIR POTENTIAL IMPACT ON DIRECT WRITING ASSESSMENT SCORES IN UTAH Chapter 1 Introduction - Nature of the Problem Every English teacher knows the pain of issuing a writing assignment. For...
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    • 5 Literature Review Teaching writing has always been a challenge in education. It is an immensely complex task the human brain takes on; invariably it is on the upper levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy. The complexity of the process is reflected in the...
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    • 8 produce a poorly written paper and still achieve high test scores if they use qualities the AES system has (sometimes bewilderingly) identified as good writing. In essence, to write a bad essay and get a good score, the student would have...
    • Page 14

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    • 11 One of those that focus on primarily on scoring is Project Essay Grader (PEG). This was the program developed by Ellis Page in the 60’s. PEG uses sample essays to generate its basis for what makes up a “good essay” given the topic. The...
    • Page 15

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    • 12 as students write on various topics. This issue is not limited to PEG; it is found throughout the AES systems. A question for future studies would be: Are these variations in algorithms detectable by writers? As mentioned previously, a strength...
    • Page 16

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    • 13 Burstein, 2006). Interestingly, despite the high correlation of AES to human scores, and the newer software, in 2006 the AWA switched to using IntelliMetric, a program developed by another company (Dikli, 2006; Grimes, Warschauer,...
    • Page 17

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    • 14 (Rudner). It also reports a high correlation between IEA and human scored essays (Grimes, Warschauer, 2008; Valenti, 2003) IEA asserts that, “Over many diverse topics, the IEA scores agreed with human experts as accurately as expert scores...
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    • 15 Experiments There has been a multiplicity of research done with AES systems. Most of the research in the past focused on how accurately AES systems can grade an essay when compared with humans. With a few exceptions, the research seems to...
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    • 16 In another study, IntelliMetric’s accuracy when compared with human scores was debated. When the study, performed in Texas, indicated that the IntelliMetric scores did not correlate with human scores, the researchers developed the hypothesis...
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    • 17 similarly was sentence structure. In the framework of this study, this is not surprising; the hard rules of grammar are the same, regardless of culture or other human factors. AES System Perceptions In a study asking whether MyAccess! users...
    • Page 25

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    • 22 role in the implementation of AES systems. Teacher, however, have the ultimate responsibility to determine if an AES program in is the best interest of the students. Teacher Role in MyAccess! Program The teacher is meant to play a valuable role in...
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    • 23 There has been interesting research regarding AES systems and revision. It is widely accepted that developing good writers involves revision. In fact, in a 3-year study, covering 3 school district in the state of California, it was found that...
    • Page 47

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    • 44 There is a strong possibility that MyAccess is only effective if it is used as source to instigate revision. Conscientious and purposeful revisions have long been considered essential to improving writing. Thus, frequent prompts and frequent...
    • Page 49

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    • 46 Figure 4.4 Top 3 Essay Submission Averages and Total Submissions for Whole Classes In 3 essays Teacher 2 submitted more revisions and a higher total number of essays than either of the other two classes, though Teacher 3 came close to the total...

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