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  • All fields: Middle
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Display: 20

    • Page 6

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    • 1 Chapter 1 Introduction – Nature of the Problem It is well known that students go through what is commonly referred to as “the fourth grade slump.” Research presented by Hall, Sabey, & McClellan (2005) and Fang (2008) has shown that this “slump”...
    • Page 17

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    • 10 the new core standards while also using specific grammar, punctuation, phrases and clauses as required by the Core Curriculum State Standards. (Please see definitions for specifics.) Setting The setting for this study is in a regular 9th grade...
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    • 11 instruction makes use of meaningful repetition, effective instruction increases the depth of students’ vocabulary knowledge, effective instruction fosters independence” (p. 77-79). Reading Programs and Interventions Involving ELLs While...
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    • 12 ability to design curricula and alternative forms of assessment that would set their school’s educational objectives and experience apart from the traditional model—the very principle charter schools have been tasked with in the first place. In...
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    • 12 literacy has been studied for better understanding and practice but there has not been as much attention to those adolescents who still struggle with content-area reading. One particular study by Denton, Wexler, Vaughn, and Bryan (2008) was...
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    • 12 Simple Sentence- A sentence that has a subject, verb, sometimes an object and represented by the abbreviation “SV” for subject-verb or “IC” for independent clause. Six-Traits of Writing- six characteristics for good writing approved by the...
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    • 13 ELLs as well as on EO students. As they set forth with different reading components, their study did confirm that the implementation of the vocabulary intervention in the mainstream classroom positively influenced both ELLs and EO students...
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    • 13 equally important to the physical fitness and activity levels of our students (Taylor, Farmer, Cameron, Meredith-Jones, Williams & Mann, 2011). An effective PE curriculum has long-term benefits. At the middle school level, there are twelve...
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    • 13 Researchers from the Northwest Evaluation Association (NWEA) examined the levels of academic achievement by comparing how 14 different states set proficiency levels for both math and reading tests. The researchers determined that what is...
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    • 14 believed by Radcliffe and Stephens (2008) that at-risk students may not become adequately prepared for any post-secondary training unless schools join forces with parents and other bodies to promote post-secondary education. The researchers...
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    • 15 With regard to reading, basic oral English language vocabulary is not enough to help ELLs succeed academically. They may read and speak fluently but if they do not have the breadth and depth of the vocabulary, they struggle. They need to see...
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    • 17 Chapter 3 Methodology As Lesaux, Kieffer, Faller, and Kelly (2010) pointed out, “Despite the importance of vocabulary knowledge for older readers and its role in the academic difficulties of many learners, it is rarely an emphasis in middle...
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    • 19 appropriate for that level. The items included in Level 6 address vocabulary knowledge and comprehension skills. The vocabulary subtest measures word decoding and vocabulary knowledge, while sentence comprehension measures the ability to...
    • Page 7

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    • 2 beginning-of-the-year to their mid-year scores on the Group Reading Assessment and Diagnostic Evaluation (GRADE) to determine if the vocabulary intervention was a successful tool for helping them improve in reading achievement. Research...
    • Page 30

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    • 24 mathematics. This means that according to a standardized test of cognitive and academic ability, such as the Woodcock Johnson III, the students exhibited a significant discrepancy (defined as 15 points or greater) between their General...
    • Page 29

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    • 24 While this was not considered significant growth, it was in fact more than 0.5 percent growth, which is normal expected growth as determined by Cedar Middle School. Reading level takes into account both vocabulary and comprehension; however,...

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