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  • All fields: Graham
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    • Page 17

    • 1 4 4. What are some important points to remember about teaching spelling? The key points addressed are spelling must be taught, it must be individualized to meet the needs of the students and it must be taught across the curriculum. Teachers...
    • Page 19

    • 16 discussions,” para. 2). In addition to student satisfaction, instructors noted the pleasure of hearing the ideas—many of which are “surprisingly compelling”—of the more introverted class members (2003). This format can also decrease...
    • Page 19

    • 16 promoting daily environmental learning” (Blair, 2009, p. 34). A 2000 study conducted in Florida concluded that “students in all types of gardens had high responsibility scores, indicating that all students possessed a sense of...
    • Page 20

    • 17 received or questions heard. Online, though, purposeful effort from the instructor is needed to reply to an email or communicate acknowledgement to students (Graham, 2004). Student recognition. Graham (2004) also found that online discussion...
    • Page 21

    • 18 are many issues associated with traditional classroom discussions, including how to handle low-responding students (Connolly, 2002; Foster, et al., 2009; Young, 2007), how to arrange and measure student participation (Coke, 2008; Foster, et al.,...
    • Page 22

    • 19 nature and environmental issues and relationships (Garcia-Ruiz, 2009, p. 34). “Personal experience and observation of nature [were] the building blocks for classroom enrichment. Gardens ground[ed] children in growth, and decay, predator-prey...
    • Page 336

    • 1924, when the Company was formed. The Water Company is of the opinion t h a t , if water was properly managed with no waste, t h e r e would be sufficient water f o r 10,000 people. Attorney lsom stated t h a t the law still remains the same. May...
    • Page 23

    • 20 nine percent increase in enthusiasm for studying math (Winters, Ring, and Burriss, 2010, p. 248-H). “Researchers found that enthusiasm for learning, standardized test scores, and GPAs were higher in ninety-two percent of the comparisons-...
    • Page 25

    • 21 that students who were exposed to recess were much more on task and less fidgety (Schachter, 2005). Another study conducted in Massachusetts involving 300 fourth-­‐grade students discovered that students who participated in 56 or more hours of...
    • Page 26

    • 23 supported the idea that growing food helps children make better food choices, which has been a growing need with the rise of childhood obesity rates. In 2008 approximately seventeen percent of children and adolescents aged two to nineteen years...
    • Page 28

    • 25 experiential learning basis, have been proposed as a method to reinforce nutrition education because youth who plant and harvest their own produce are more likely to eat it” (Beckman, Smith, 2008, p. 12). The 2008 study conducted by Beckman...
    • Page 29

    • 26 contest. This study found that ninety-seven percent of the school gardens were used primarily for environmental education. Barriers to School Gardens Barriers to school gardens were obstacles that stood in the way, limited or slowed school...
    • Page 30

    • 27 associated with the integration of school gardens within the school system” (Graham, Zidenberg-Cherr, 2005, p. 1797). In this study “teachers noted that the greatest barrier to using the garden for academic instruction was time. Other...
    • Page 31

    • 28 greatest percentage of responses shows that teachers are responsible for the garden” (Graham, Beall, Lussier, McLaughlin, & Zidenberg-Cherr, 2005, p. 150). Lack of curriculum materials linked to academic standards was significant barrier to...
    • Page 32

    • 29 reduce barriers. Teachers who were familiar with maintenance people were able to solicit their input for planting opportunities (Coffee & Rivkin,1998). An obtained copy of the physical plans for schools helped to avoid utility lines and other...
    • Page 37

    • 31 Instrumentation Questionnaires, language arts scores from end-of-level CRTs, UALPA scores, free and reduced lunch data (Title I), and ethnographic case studies were used to examine the connections between home-literacy environments and literacy...
    • Page 35

    • 32 Teachers strongly agreed that there [was] a need for multiple resources, such as curriculum linked to instruction, teacher training for gardening and its connection to curriculum, and lessons on teaching nutrition in the garden… the pressure...
    • Page 43

    • 4 0 References Bear, D. R., Invernizzi, M., Templeton, S., & Johnston, F. (2004). Words their way: word study for phonics, vocabulary, and spelling instruction (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson/Merrill/Prentice Hall. Burkhart, J. L....
    • Page 50

    • 46 References Al Otaiba, S., Kosanovich-Grek, M., Torgesen, J., Hassler, L., & Wahl, M. (2005). Reviewing core kindergarten and first-grade reading programs in light of No Child Left Behind: An exploratory study. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 21(4),...
    • Page 53

    • 49 Pellegrini, A., Huberty, P., & Jones, I. (1995). The effects of recess timing on children's playground and classroom behaviors. American Educational Research Journal, 32(4), 845-­‐ 864. Pica, R. (2006). A running start: How play, physical activ...


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