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    • SOUTHERN UTAH UNIVERSITY Degradability of both a physical latent fingerprint and its associated extracted DNA MASTERS OF SCIENCE IN FORENSIC SCIENCE Kristina Dean 2009
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    • 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT: 4 1. INTRODUCTION: 5 1.1 Fingerprint 6 1.2 DNA 7 2. METHODS & MATERIALS: 13 2.1 Fingerprint 13 2.2 DNA Extraction 15 2.3 PCR 15 2.4 Quantification 16 2.5 Amplification 17 2.6 STR Analysis 17 3. RESULTS: 18 4....
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    • 4 ABSTRACT There are several ways to identify a potential suspect in a crime which can range from an eye witness statement to something as small as a single drop of blood. Just as a physical fingerprint can be used in identification, DNA...
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    • 5 1 INTRODUCTION DNA can be used to distinguish individuals based on the individuality of their profiles. A profile is a visualization of the genetic code which shows locations, or loci, of particular regions on the genome where the code can be...
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    • 6 physical fingerprint should be processed for the print only or used as both a fingerprint and a possible source of DNA. Having knowledge of the dual purpose of a physical fingerprint, not only as a source of evidence but as DNA as well, could...
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    • 7 has been recovered, such as with DNA, so it is important to know what types of interferences are associated with each type of recovery procedure so that no damage will occur to the evidence at hand (Azoury et al., 2002 Stein et al., 1996; Zamir...
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    • 8 consists of images or profiles from unsolved cases. CODIS is an index that aids crime labs to store and compare DNA profiles. This record is called a CODIS DNA profile and consists of an individual’s DNA profile, along with the sample’s...
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    • 9 individuals. These STR’s are differentiated by the number of copies of the repeat sequences contained within the amplified regions. An allele refers to the different forms of a gene. Everyone inherits two alleles, one maternal the other...
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    • 10 Applied Biosystems (AB 2006, Foster City, CA) and the PowerPlex 16 produced by Promega Corporation (Promega 2008, Madison, WI.). The kit used in this study was the Promega PowerPlex16 multiplex kit, which detects sixteen STRs while the Applied...
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    • 11 common in evidence due to degradation or even contamination, such as from other DNA or inhibitors. The more loci that can be detected allow for much more discrimination between individuals and thus simpler for identification among those...
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    • 12 human DNA and one TaqMan MGB probe labeled with a reporter dye for detecting the amplified sequence. The reporter dye is linked to the 5'end of the probe, while the MGB is at the 3' end of the probe and a nonfluorescent quencher at the 3' end of...
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    • 13 double-stranded DNA, some are specific for single-stranded molecules, others are active towards both and still others can cleave residues at the ends of DNA molecules or even anywhere along the DNA chain thus providing damage to the DNA....
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    • 14 number of glass microscope slides were touched by a donor and held for 3-5 seconds. This was to ensure that a solid print was placed on each slide and therefore a sufficient source for the DNA to be collected. The experiment had two trials, with...
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    • 15 shown not to interfere with the DNA extraction and amplification from evidence ( Balogh et al., 2003; Grubwieser, 2003; Roux et al., 1999.) 2.2 DNA Extraction DNA recovered from the latent print was extracted from epithelial cells following...
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    • 16 Samples were quantified with the real-time PCR machine Roche Lightcycler 480 (Roche Applied Science, Mannhelm, Germany) using the AB Quantifiler Human DNA Quantification kit (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, California). This step was performed...
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    • 17 concentrations of samples were then obtained and volumes were determined for use with PCR machine. 2.5 AMPLIFICATION Protocol used for PCR amplification was from all sections of the Promega PowerPlex 16 system technical manual (TM 012 Promega...
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    • 18 of the ladders was completed prior to the sample run, and the peak heights were too high, the loading cocktail was modified to contain 0.25μl of ILS 600 and 9.75μl of formamide. Due to limit of chemical resources, only those samples that had...
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    • 19 appearance of the latent fingerprint also increased (Figure 3). Figure 3 depicts physical fingerprint area data for weeks 1-3 only; this is because at the beginning of the experiment no degradation had taken place at the initial start of those...
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    • 20 temperature treatment and incubation times with physical fingerprint area and DNA concentration. For the % physical degradation within the two trials over the temperature ranges and incubation times, percents varied between ± 0.5-1.5...
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    • 21 Sample Concentration00.511.5010203040506070Sample NumberConcentration nanogram/microliter Figure 1: Concentration of DNA in ng/ μl obtained from each physical fingerprint sample. Figure 2: Images of physical fingerprints at beginning and end of...

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