STRAIGHT IS THE GATE 106
Philipsen, G. (1992). Speaking culturally: Explorations in social communication. Albany, NY: State University of New York.
Philipsen, G. (1997). A theory of speech codes. In G. Philipsen & T. Albrecht (Eds.),
STRAIGHT IS THE GATE 107
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. (2001). Doctrine and covenants student manual (2nd ed.). Salt Lake City, UT: Church Educational System. Utah/Arizona Attorney General's Offices. (2009). The primer: A...
Where parents are capable of guiding the child and are inclined to supervise the
home study, their children succeed in school. But where the parents are illiterate
or for other reasons are unable to supervise the home study, their children as...
Axelrod, M., Zhe, E., Haugen, K., & Klein, J. (2009). Self-management of on-task
homework behavior: A promising strategy for adolescents with attention and
behavior problems. Retrieved Oct. 13, 2010,...
Harris, A., & Goodall, J. (2008). Do parents know they matter? Engaging all parents in
learning. Educational Research, 50(3), 277-280.
Hook, W., Bishop, W., & Hook, J. (2007). A quality math curriculum in support...
Yang, D. C. (2006). Developing number sense through real-life situations in school of
Taiwan. Teaching Children Mathematics, 13, 104.
Yang, D., & Wu, W. (2010). The study of number sense: Realistic activities integrated
into third-grade math...
performance above and beyond the influence of family demographic variables” (2008, p. 64).
Torgesen (2000) found that “children who showed the poorest growth in word reading ability
had the lowest pretest levels of phonological language...
students early” (p. 280). As Greenfield, Rinaldi, Proctor, and Cardarelli (2010) relate, ownership
of learning difficulties are moved from the student to the teacher and the instruction. When the
teacher does not see the student improving or...
supports” (Ysseldyke, Burns, Scholin, & Parker, 2010, p.58). Tier 2 intervention, generally
consists of small group differentiated instruction that is explicit and systematic (Bursuck &
Blanks, 2010; Greenfield et al., 2010; Vaughn & Fuchs,...
to respond confirms the presence of LD, and persistence of the academic problem then warrants
special education” (2003, p. 139).
Screening and Progress Monitoring
The basis for determining student need begins with universal screening. Accurate...
reading” (p. 283). They continue to explain “the assessments should be sufficiently sensitive to
small changes in the student’s reading performance” (Mesmer & Mesmer, 2008, p. 283). Besides
indicating student growth, progress monitoring...
special educators are asked to take on the roles of intervention specialists, RtI experts, and Tier
evaluators in addition to their undersold roles as high-quality instructors who perform daily with
professional practices of rigor, excellence,...
2003). In addition to improving the core academic instruction, by working together, educators
will have the opportunity to focus on instruction and monitoring students’ response to accurately
determine those in need of special education...
counterparts (NAEP, 2011). RTI gives educators the flexibility to meet the needs of diverse
learners to help all students find success in learning to read.
Another group of students who would benefit from the focused and individualized nature
Perceptions of Teachers Concerning RTI
In their study, Greenfield et al. (2010) found that teachers in their first year of school-wide
RTI implementation used progress monitoring more strategically and became more
confident in using the data...
data and reviewed systematically to determine whether other instruction is needed” (Brown-
Chidsey, Loughlin, & O’Reilly, 2004, p. 139).
Mechanism to Diagnose Reading Problems
Along with concern about the flexibility to meet individual...
determine if a child struggles reading fluently, but cannot define “specific skill deficits that are
contributing to poor reading fluency or how to guide intervention” (Ysseldyke et al., 2010, p. 56-
57). Therefore, it is paramount for...
Consideration of Time and Numbers Involved in Interventions
Besides noting a lack of focus on pinpointing and adjusting Tier 2 intervention to meet
specific needs of individuals, teachers in this study identified approximately 30 percent...
greater than that for proficient readers” (2011, p.3). Perhaps, instead of pushing all students to fit
a prescribed expectation in reading no matter what; the educational system either needs to
develop another avenue of learning for resistant...
Berkeley, S., Bender, W., Peaster, L. G., & Saunders, L. (2009). Implementation of Response to
Intervention. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 42(1), 85-95.
Bianco, M. (2010). Strength-based RTI:...